نشست سبک‌شناسی هنر و ادبیات انقلاب اسلامی برگزار شد

به گزارش اداره روابط عمومی و اطلاع رسانی پژوهشگاه فرهنگ و اندیشه اسلامی، نشست علمی “سبک‌شناسی هنر و ادبیات انقلاب اسلامی” با تکیه بر کتاب سبک‌شناسی هنر انقلاب اسلامی، اثر محمدرضا وحیدزاده صبح روز چهارشنبه مورخ 9 آذرماه جاری با حضور نویسنده کتاب (محمدرضا وحیدزاده)، دکتر محمدرضا سنگری مدیر گروه ادبیات اندیشه پژوهشگاه فرهنگ و اندیشه اسلامی و حجت‌الاسلام والمسلمین مهدی جهان عضو شورای علمی گروه فرهنگ‌پژوهی پژوهشگاه در خبرگزاری تسنیم برگزار شد.

محمدرضا وحیدزاده در ابتدای این نشست گفت: با توجه به اینکه موضوع جلسه سبک‌شناسی هنر و ادبیات انقلاب اسلامی است و من توفیق داشته‌ام با همین نام کتابی را تالیف کنم، تلاش می‌کنم تا گزارشی از نتایج به دست آمده در کتاب را خدمتتان ارائه نمایم. نخست باید یادآور شوم که کار صورت‌گرفته در این اثر به نوعی یک کار گروهی بوده است. در واقع من حاصل تحقیقات نظرات و ایده‌های دیگران را در این کتاب گردآوری کرده‌ام؛ آرای کسانی که قبل از من در مصاحبه‌ها و یادداشت‌ها و نشست‌ها و مقالاتشان نکاتی را در همین زمینه بیان کرده بودند، ولی هیچگاه پیش از این در یک جا دسته‌بندی نشده بود من سعی کردم هر منبع مرتبطی که در این زمینه وجود داشت را گردآوری، بررسی و دسته‌بندی کنم.

وی ادامه داد: این کتاب مجموعه‌ای از آراء و نظرات منتقدان و صاحب‌نظران دربارۀ هنر انقلاب است؛ همچنین من در این کتاب مکرر از استاد سنگری نام برده‌ام و از پژوهش‌ها و آثار ایشان استفاده کرده‌ام. لذا باید حق دیگران را پاس بدارم. از توفیقی که در تالیف این کتاب نصیبم شده بسیار خرسندم؛ زیرا قبلا کتابی در این زمینه منتشر نشده است. تا جایی که گاهی برخی از پژوهشگران منکر وجود سبک برای هنر انقلاب شده‌اند.

وحیدزاده با برشمردن هفت ویژگی سبک هنر انقلاب اسلامی شامل نفی مدرنیسم، اسلوب‌گرایی، پراکنده‌گزینی، بیان‌گرایی، نمادگرایی (که غیر از سمبلیسم است)، واقع‌گرایی (که غیر از رئالیسم است) و صراحت و قعطیت گفت: البته وجوه تفاوت‌ این ویژگی‌ها را با اصطلاحات مشابه آن‌ها در مکاتب هنری مورد بحث قرار داده‌ام. من در این کتاب سعی کردم که یک مقایسه تطبیقی بین نقاشی و شعر داشته باشم. از جمله ایراداتی که از کتاب گرفته شده داشتن مقدمه طولانی است، زیرا من سعی کردم در این مقدمه در مقایسه تطبیقی، نمونه‌هایی را از هنر غرب و شرق جمع آوری کنم تا پشتوانه‌ای برای ادامه تحقیقاتم باشد.

نویسنده کتاب سبک شناسی هنر انقلاب اسلامی در ادامه با اشاره به متن کتاب بیان کرد: در حوزۀ علم سبک‌شناسی برخی‌ از صاحب‌نظران در ايجاد سبک، عوامل چندي از جمله جهان‌بيني مؤلف و نحوة تفکر و زيست او را مؤثر می‌دانند. از این منظر مکاتب و سبک‌هاي مختلف ادبي و هنري را بايد به نوعي تجلي جهان‌‌بيني و شرايط اجتماعي حاکم بر دورة آن‌ها در عرصة هنر و ادبيات قلمداد کرد. در نتیجه در سبک‌شناسي آثار هنري به ويژه در ارزيابي سبک عمومي، توجه به زمينه‌هاي فکري و فرهنگي ظهور يک سبک يا مکتب از اهميت بسزايي برخوردار است.

وحیدزاده افزود: همچنين در علم سبک‌شناسي، بهتر آن است که مجموعه‌ای از حوزه‌ها را هم‌زمان و به صورت تطبیقی و بر اساس مبانی نظری مشترک آن‌ها مورد مطالعه قرار داد. به عنوان مثال برای شناخت بهتر سبک دورة خراسانی، اکتفا به بررسی ویژگی‌های زبانی اشعار این دوره، نمی‌تواند چندان راهگشا باشد. بلکه برای درک صحیح‌تر سبک این دوره باید شعر دورة خراسانی در نسبت با معماری و سایر حوزه‌های تمدنی این عصر و بر  اساس اندیشه‌های فلسفی حاکم بر آن دوره سنجید شود. انقلاب شکوهمند اسلامی نیز با تغییرات بنیادینی که در فضای فکری و فرهنگی جامعه ایجاد کرده، عرصه‌های مختلف  اجتماعی و فرهنگی از جمله ساحت ادبیات و هنر را از خود متأثر ساخته است. از این روی به نظر می‌رسد ادبیات و هنر این دوره دارای سبکی منحصر به فرد و برآمده از تحولات فکری و روحی مردمان این عصر باشد.

وحیدزاده بعد از ارائه این مقدمه با اشاره به اثر مذکور گفت: این کتاب «سبك» را ویژگی‌های تكرارشونده و مشخص صوری و ساختاری یك اثر یا مجموعه‌ای از آثار می‌داند كه عوامل اجتماعی و فرهنگی و به‌ویژه نحوة اندیشیدن مؤلف یا مؤلفانِ آن آثار تأثیر بسزایی در ایجاد و كیفیت آن‌ها دارد. همچنین نتیجه می‌گیرد كه با وقوع انقلاب اسلامی، فصل تازه‌ای در تاریخ این سرزمین آغاز شده است كه دامنة تأثیرات خود را در گسترة وسیعی از حوزه‌ها، از مسائل سیاسی و اجتماعی تا مسائل فرهنگی و هنری بسط داده است.

وی تصریح کرد: انسان عهد انقلاب اسلامی دارای جهان‌بینی خاصی است كه طرز نگرش او را به هستی و پدیده‌های آن متفاوت می‌سازد. این طرز نگرش متفاوت، تأثیرات مستقیمی در هنر و ادبیات این دوره خواهد گذاشت و منجر به شكل‌گیری سبك تازه‌ای در هنر می‌شود. این سبك تازه در حیطه‌های مختلفی همچون شعر و نقاشی تأثیری مشترك و مشابه بر جای خواهد گذاشت. از این روی به نظر می‌رسد مطالعة هنر و ادبیات این دوره و بررسی نسبت آن‌ با گفتمان فكری حاكم، منتج به كشف ویژگی‌های سبكی مشترك و تكرارشوندة آثار ادبی و هنری مرتبط با انقلاب خواهد شد و می‌تواند مشخص‌كنندة سبك هنر انقلاب اسلامی باشد. نگارنده در این اثر تلاش می‌کند با نگاهی به آرای منتقدان و صاحب‌نظران هنر‌ و ادبیات انقلاب اسلامی و با روشی مشخص به احصا و تبیین ویژگی‌های سبكی آن نائل آید.

محمدرضا وحیدزاده در پایان سخنان خود گفت: این کتاب براي شناخت بهتر سبک اين دوره به سراغ دو حوزة شعر و نقاشي رفته و به بررسي تطبيقي سبک آن‌ها پرداخته است و با بررسي آرا و نظرات منتقدان و صاحب‌نظراني که به بيان ديدگاه‌هاي خود دربارة ادبيات و هنر اين عصر پرداخته‌اند، هفت مؤلفة سبک‌شناختي مشترک را ميان شعر و نقاشي اين دوره احصا کرده است. طبق ارزيابي‌هاي به‌عمل‌آمده شعر و نقاشي انقلاب اسلامي را مي‌توان هنري دانست با هفت مشخصة سبکی نفي فرماليسم، پراکنده‌گزيني، اسلوب‌گرايي، صراحت و قطعيت، بيان‌گرايي، واقع‌گرايي و نمادگرايي. اين هفت ويژگي مؤلفه‌هاي شاخص و تکرارشونده‌اي هستند که به گفتة منتقدان و صاحب‌نظران در هنر و ادبيات انقلاب اسلامي ظهور کرده‌اند.

دکتر محمدرضا سنگری مدیر گروه ادبیات اندیشه پژوهشگاه در این نشست با بیان اینکه از درخشان‌ترین فصول انقلاب اسلامی حوزه هنر و ادبیات است، افزود: طی این 40 سال که از پیروزی انقلاب اسلامی می‌گذرد، بیش از 25 هزار اثر با مضمون انقلاب تولید شده است؛‌ اتفاقی که طی 400 سال گذشته سابقه نداشته است؛ به این معنا که مجموع تولیدات ادبی ما طی این سال‌ها، از مجموع تولیدات 400 سال گذشته بیشتر است. اگر بنا باشد به یک هویت شکل‌گرفته و ساختارمند دست یابیم، این مقدار تولیدات ادبی کفایت می‌کند.

نویسنده کتاب از نتایج سحر، با تأکید بر اینکه عرصه‌های نوپدید ادبیات انقلاب اسلامی را هنوز بررسی نکرده‌ایم، گفت: امروز در عرصه ادبیات، گونه‌هایی داریم که اصلاً‌ پیشینه ندارد. برخی از این گونه‌های جدید به سبب امکانات جدیدی است که با آن مواجه هستیم. امکاناتی مثل تلفن همراه و رایانه ادبیاتی به وجود آوردند که در گذشته ما وجود نداشت.

در ادامه این نشست حجت‌الاسلام مهدی جهان گفت: اگر چالش‌های اقتصادی و اجتماعی امروز را بررسی کنیم، متوجه می‌شویم در دایره جامعه‌سازی جدید احتیاج به مهندسی و تمدن نوینی داریم به گونه‌ای که باید مجدداً تمدن اسلامی را پدید آوریم.

وی افزود: از سوی دیگر در عرصه فرهنگی مبتلا به خطاهای فرهنگی شدیدی شدیم. امروز مبتلا به چندگانگی فرهنگی هستیم. به صورت مصداقی در ادبیات و هنر این اتفاق در حال رخ دادن است. ما با جریان هنری غالبی برخورد می‌کنیم که این جریان شدیداً مبتلا به بیماری‌های شرقی و غربی است.

جهان گفت: واقع‌گرایی در هنر به این معناست هر اثر هنری یک امر واقعی را معلوم می‌کند. جریان انتزاعی در هنر می‌گوید ما حرف‌های افلاطونی و ارسطویی را باور نداریم. از نظر این جریان، هنر جدید به این معناست که اصلاً قرار نیست هنر، ما به ازای واقع داشته باشد. از این رو شکل‌های مختلفی از انتزاعیات مثل امپرسیونیسم یا دریافتگری به وجود آمد. امروز در هنر انقلاب اسلامی معنای واقع‌گرایی کاملاً غیرمرسوم می‌شود. واقع‌گرایی مرز بین مدرن و پست مدرن است. این مسأله را باید در عرصه مباحث بنیادین طرح کنیم که آیا انقلاب اسلامی می‌تواند تأملی بر پست‌مدرن داشته باشد یا خیر؟ آیا انقلاب اسلامی اساساٌ مدرنیسم را پذیرفته یا خیر؟

در پایان این نشست پیشنهادهایی درباب بازنگری و بازنگاری متن کتاب و تداوم و استمرار کار از جمله کشف سبک هنر انقلاب اسلامی با تکیه بر حوزه‌های دیگر مانند سینما، موسیقی، ادبیات داستانی، نثر ادبی، سفرنامه، ادبیات نمایش و… مطرح شد.

110 دیدگاه‌ها

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  38. Thanks for the ideas you have discussed here. Yet another thing I would like to mention is that personal computer memory specifications generally go up along with other advances in the technologies. For instance, if new generations of processors are introduced to the market, there is certainly usually a related increase in the shape demands of both the laptop memory along with hard drive space. This is because the software operated simply by these processors will inevitably surge in power to make use of the new technological innovation.

  39. Thanks for your write-up on the traveling industry. We would also like to add that if you are one senior thinking about traveling, it is absolutely crucial that you buy traveling insurance for seniors. When traveling, golden-agers are at greatest risk of experiencing a medical emergency. Receiving the right insurance plan package to your age group can look after your health and provide you with peace of mind.

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