نشست علمی فلسفه میان­‌فرهنگی با حضور پروفسور گونتر برگزار شد

به گزارش اداره روابط عمومی و اطلاع‌رسانی پژوهشگاه فرهنگ و اندیشه اسلامی، نشست تخصصی “فلسفه میان­‌فرهنگی: دین، سیاست و برخورد خشونت‌­آمیز”، ششم تیرماه جاری در سالن فرهنگ پژوهشگاه فرهنگ و اندیشه اسلامی در شهر مقدس قم برگزار شد.

در این نشست، پروفسور هانس کریستین گونتر[۱] استاد دانشگاه فرایبورگ آلمان به ایراد سخنرانی پرداخت. دبیری علمی این نشست را حجت‌­الاسلام دکتر مسعود اسماعیلی مدیر گروه فلسفه پژوهشگاه بر عهده داشت و اساتید و اعضاء هیأت علمی پژوهشگاه و دیگر مراکز و مؤسسات علمی حوزوی و دانشگاهی در جلسه حاضر بودند.

پروفسور گونتر در بخش اول نشست به ایراد سخنرانی پرداخت که مهمترین محورهای آن از قرار ذیل است. وی اظهار داشت تعریف جامعی از دین که همه ادیان را شامل شود وجود ندارد، کلمه religion در واقع کلمه‌­ای است که بر دین رومی که اصلا خدامحور نیست اطلاق می­شده است و در مراحل بعد توسعه یافته و بر همه رویکردها اطلاق گردیده است. با توجه به این پیشینه، دین الهی را از نظر گونتر نمی‌­توان با عقل و دلایل عقلی مستند ساخت؛ زیرا دین، امری قلبی است و دیندار حقیقی کسی است که حضور یک موجود کامل و قدرت برتر را در حیات خود احساس کند و خود را در برابر او، کوچک و ناقص بشمرد. بدین‌­ترتیب تنها روش تبلیغ و ترویج آن انعکاس عقاید در اعمال است به گونه­‌ای که افراد با دیدن اعمال دین‌داران علاقمند به گرویدن گردند.

گونتر بیان داشت بر این اساس، گفتگوی دینی نیز نمی­‌تواند بر اساس دلایل عقلی صورت گیرد بلکه گفتگو  عبارت است از به اشتراک گذاشتن تجربه­‌های دینی افراد یک دین یا ادیان مختلف. پیش­فرض چنین رویکردی، مطلق ندانستن فهم باورمندان یک دین و پذیرفتن این حقیقت است که تلقی هر یک از افراد از دین، می‌تواند سهمی در تبیین بهتر از دین و درک بهتر و کاملتر از آن داشته باشد. این مطلب چنین قابل تبیین است که دین امر قلبی است و قلب دیندار واقعی، باید همیشه در برابر آسمان (آن موجود برتر) گشوده باشد و خود را بی‌نیاز و مستغنی و یا مستقل از آن موجود متعالی احساس نکند و همواره آماده و پذیرای ظهور بیشتر آن موجود در قلب خود باشد. با توجه به چنین احساس و تجربه‌ه­ای، هیچ کس نمی­‌تواند ادعای فهم مطلق و کامل دین را داشته باشد؛ بلکه باید در راستای فهم بهتر و کاملتر با همه دین‌داران از طریق به اشتراک نهادن تجارب دینی، تشریک مساعی کند.

وی گفت با توجه به مبانی فوق، هیچ­گاه نمی­‌توان دین را مروج خشونت دانست؛ زیرا منطق گفتگو در دین بر اساس پذیرفتن حق برای همه افراد در دینداری و فهمی در حد ظرفیت خود از دین است؛ بدون آنکه هیچ اصراری برای پذیرش یک باور خاص (که یک فهم ناقص از دین است) باشد. همچنین از آنجا که دین امری قلبی است، امر قلبی را نمی­توان از طریق خشونت و با اجبار برای کسی ایجاد نمود.

پس از بیانات پروفسور گونتر، آقایان دکتر محمد محمدرضایی (سردبیر فصلنامه علمی-پژوهشی قبسات پژوهشگاه و مدیر گروه فلسفه پردیس فارابی دانشگاه تهران)، دکتر حسین رمضانی (عضو هیأت علمی گروه فلسفه پژوهشگاه)، حجج‌­اسلام دکتر براتی (مدیر گروه تمدن مرکز علوم انسانی جامعه‌المصطفی العالمیه)، دکتر محمدجواد رودگر (مدیر گروه عرفان پژوهشگاه)، استاد حسین عشاقی (عضو هیأت علمی گروه فلسفه پژوهشگاه)  و خانم دکتر شریف (استاد فلسفه و عرفان در دانشگاه و حوزه علمیه) به ایراد سخنانی پیرامون مطالب بیان­‌شده پرداختند و پرسش‌هایی را مطرح نمودند که از سوی پروفسور گونتر پاسخ داده شد.

[۱]. پروفسور دکتر هانس کریستین گونتر (۱۹۵۷، بادن)، استاد دانشگاه فرایبورگ و دانش‌آموخته فلسفه، مطالعات کلاسیک و زبان‌شناسی (۱۹۷۶-۱۹۸۲) دانشگاه فرایبورگ است که در حوزه‌های پژوهشیِ فلسفه باستان، فلسفه یونان، فلسفه هیدگر، حقوق و سیاست بین‌المللی، اخلاق و سیاست، گفت‌وگوی میان‌دینی مشغول به تحقیق می­باشد و استاد مهمان در دانشگاه‌های هومبولت، آکسفورد، وندیگ، باری، تفلیس، توکیو، تورن، پکن، شانگهای، کونمینگ بوده است. همچنین وی دارای آثار متعدد در حوزه های پژوهشی مرتبط، داور و ناظر شورای پژوهشی اروپا (ERF)، معاون انجمن بین‌المللی مطالعات تطبیقی چین و غرب، سرویراستار چند مجموعه کتاب و عضو شوراهای مختلف علمی- پژوهشی، مجری طرحهای متعدد بین المللی و رییس همایشهایی در کشورهای مختلف، مجری طرح بین المللی گفتگوی ادیان با تأکید بر گفتگوی مسیحیت، بودیسم و اسلام و نیز مجری طرح بین المللی دین، اخلاق و سیاست می­باشد. گونتر مسلط به زبان‌های آلمانی، انگلیسی، ایتالیایی، لاتینی، یونانی قدیم، یونانی جدید و آشنا با زبان‌های فرانسوی، اسپانیایی، گرجستانی، ژاپنی، چینی است. (صفحه دانشگاهی پروفسور هانس کریستین گونتر)

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